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2013考研英语(二)试题及答案解析

时间:2020-07-16来源:swan 作者:历年 点击:

每年的全国研究生统一招生初试考试试题(简称:考研试题)在大家考研过程中的重要程度不言而喻,即使在考研备基础备考阶段也要以历年考研试题为根本,下面是河北中公考研小编整理发布历年考研英语试题及答案解析汇总供考生参考,预祝大家考个好成绩!

SectionIUseofEnglish

Directions:

Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)

Giventheadvantagesofelectronicmoney,youmightthinkthatwewouldmovequicklytothecashlesssocietyinwhichallpaymentsaremadeelectronically.1atruecashlesssocietyisprobablynotaroundthecorner.Indeed,predictionshavebeen2fortwodecadesbuthavenotyetcometofruition.Forexample,BusinessWeekpredictedin1975thatelectronicmeansofpaymentwouldsoon"revolutionizethevery3ofmoneyitself,"onlyto4itselfseveralyearslater.Whyhasthemovementtoacashlesssocietybeenso5incoming?

Althoughelectronicmeansofpaymentmaybemoreefficientthanapaymentssystembasedonpaper,severalfactorswork6thedisappearanceofthepapersystem.First,itisvery7tosetupthecomputer,cardreader,andtelecornmunicationsnetworksnecessarytomakeelectronicmoneythe8formofpaymentSecond,papercheckshavetheadvantagethatthey9receipts,somethingthaimanyconsumersareunwillingto10.Third,theuseofpaperchecksgivesconsumersseveraldaysof"float"-ittakesseveraldays11acheckiscashedandfundsare12fromtheissuer'saccount,whichmeansthatthewriterofthecheckcancaminterestonthefundsinthemeantime.13electronicpaymentsarcimmediate,theyeliminatethefloatfortheconsumer.

Fourth,electronicmeansofpaymentmay14securityandprivacyconcerns.Weoftenhearmediareportsthatanunauthorizedhackerhasbeenabletoaccessacomputerdatabaseandtoalterinformation15there.Thefactthatthisisnotan16occurrencemeansthatdishonestpersonsmightbeabletoaccessbankaccountsinelectronicpaymentssystemsand17fromsomeoneelse'saccounts.The18ofthistypeoffraudisnoeasytask,andanewfieldofcomputerscienceisdevelopingto19securityissues.Afurtherconcernisthattheuseofelectronicmeansofpaymentleavesanelectronic20thatcontainsalargeamountofpersonaldata.Thereareconcernsthatgovernment,employers,andmarketersmightbeabletoaccessthesedata,therebyviolatingourprivacy.

1.[A]However[B]Moreover[C]Therefore[D]Otherwise

2.[A]off[B]back[C]over[D]around

3.[A]power[B]concept[C]history[D]role

4.[A]reward[B]resist[C]resume[D]reverse

5.[A]silent[B]sudden[C]slow[D]steady

6.[A]for[B]against[C]with[D]on

7.[A]imaginative[B]expensive[C]sensitive[D]productive

8.[A]similar[B]original[C]temporary[D]dominant

9.[A]collect[B]provide[C]copy[D]print

10.[A]giveup[B]takeover[C]bringback[D]passdown

11.[A]before[B]after[C]since[D]when

12.[A]kept[B]borrowed[C]released[D]withdrawn

13.[A]Unless[B]Until[C]Because[D]Though

14.[A]hide[B]express[C]raise[D]ease

15.[A]analyzed[B]shared[C]stored[D]displayed

16.[A]unsafe[B]unnatural[C]uncommon[D]unclear

17.[A]steal[B]choose[C]benefit[D]return

18.[A]consideration[B]prevention[C]manipulation[D]justification

19.[A]copewith[B]fightagainst[C]adaptto[D]callfor

20.[A]chunk[B]chip[C]path[D]trail

SectionIIReadingComprehension

PartA

Directions:

Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(40points)

Text1

Inanessayentitled“MakingItinAmerica”,theauthorAdamDavidsonrelatesajokefromcottonaboutjusthowmuchamoderntextilemillhasbeenautomated:Theaveragemillonlytwoemployeestoday,”amanandadog.Themanistheretofeedthedogistheretokeepthemanawayfromthemachines.”

Davidson’sarticleisoneofanumberofpiecesthathaverecentlyappearedmakingthepointthatthereasonwehavesuchstubbornlyhighunemploymentanddecliningmiddle-classincomestodayisalsobecauseoftheadvancesinbothglobalizationandtheinformationtechnologyrevolution,whicharemorerapidlythaneverreplacinglaborwithmachinesorforeignworker.

Inthepast,workerswithaverageskills,doinganaveragejob,couldearnanaveragelifestyle,But,today,averageisofficiallyover.Beingaveragejustwon’tearnyouwhatitusedto.Itcan’twhensomanymoreemployershavesomuchmoreaccesstosomuchmoreaboveaveragecheapforeignlabor,cheaprobotics,cheapsoftware,cheapautomationandcheapgenius.Therefore,everyoneneedstofindtheirextra-theiruniquevaluecontributionthatmakesthemstandoutinwhateveristheirfieldofemployment.

Yes,newtechnologyhasbeeneatingjobsforever,andalwayswill.Butthere’sbeenanacceleration.AsDavidsonnotes,”Inthe10yearsendingin2009,[U.S.]factoriesshedworkerssofastthattheyerasedalmostallthegainsoftheprevious70years;roughlyoneoutofeverythreemanufacturingjobs-about6millionintotal-disappeared.

Therewillalwaysbechanged-newjobs,newproducts,newservices.ButtheonethingweknowforsureisthatwitheachadvanceinglobalizationandtheI.T.revolution,thebestjobswillrequireworkerstohavemoreandbettereducationtomakethemselvesaboveaverage.

Inaworldwhereaverageisofficiallyover,therearemanythingsweneedtodotosupportemployment,butnothingwouldbemoreimportantthanpassingsomekindofG.I.Billforthe21stcenturythatensuresthateveryAmericanhasaccesstopoet-highschooleducation.

21.ThejokeinParagraph1isusedtoillustrate_______

[A]theimpactoftechnologicaladvances

[B]thealleviationofjobpressure

[C]theshrinkageoftextilemills

[D]thedeclineofmiddle-classincomes

22.AccordingtoParagraph3,tobeasuccessfulemployee,onehasto______

[A]workoncheapsoftware

[B]askforamoderatesalary

[C]adoptanaveragelifestyle

[D]contributesomethingunique

23.ThequotationinParagraph4explainsthat______

[A]gainsoftechnologyhavebeenerased

[B]jobopportunitiesaredisappearingatahighspeed

[C]factoriesaremakingmuchlessmoneythanbefore

[D]newjobsandserviceshavebeenoffered

24.Accordingtotheauthor,toreduceunemployment,themostimportantis_____

[A]toacceleratetheI.T.revolution

[B]toensuremoreeducationforpeople

[C]roadvanceeconomicglobalization

[D]topassmorebillsinthe21stcentury

25.Whichofthefollowingwouldbethemostappropriatetitleforthetext?

[A]NewLawTakesEffect

[B]TechnologyGoesCheap

[C]AverageIsOver

[D]RecessionIsBad

Text2

Acenturyago,theimmigrantsfromacrosstheAtlanticincluedsettlersandsojourners.AlongwiththemanyfolkslookingtomakeapermanenthomeintheUnitedStatescamethosewhohadnointentiontostay,and7millinpeoplearrivedwhileabout2milliondeparted.AboutaquarterofallItalianimmigrants,forexanmle,eventuallyreturnedtoItalyforgood.Theyevenhadanaffectionatenickname,“uccellidipassaggio,”birdsofpassage.

Today,wearemuchmorerigidaboutimmigrants.Wedividenemcomersintotwocategories:legalorillegal,goodorbad.WehailthemasAmericansinthemaking,orourbrokenimmigrantionsystemandthelongpoliticalparalysisoverhowtofixit.Wedon’tneedmorecategories,butweneedtochangethewaywethinkaboutcategories.Weneedtolookbeyondstrickdefinitionsoflegalandillegal.Tostart,wecanrecognizethenewbirdsofpassage,thoselivingandthrivinginthegrayareas.Wemightthenbegintosolveourimmigrationchallenges.

Croppickers,violinists,constructionworkers,entrepreneurs,engineers,homehealth-careaidesandphysicistsareamongtoday’sbirdsofpassage.Theyareenergeticparticipantsinaglobaleconomydrivenbytheflowofwork,moneyandideas.Theyprefertocomeandgoasopportunitycallsthem,Theycanmanagetohaveajobinoneplaceandafamilyinanother.

Withorwithoutpermission,theystraddlelaws,jurisdictionsandidentitieswithease.WeneedthemtoimaginetheUnitedStatesasaplacewheretheycanbeproductiveforawhilewithoutcommittingthemselvestostayingforever.Weneedthemtofeelthathomecanbebothhereandthereandthattheycanbelongtotwonationshonorably.

Accommodatingthisnewworldofpeopleinmotionwillrequirenewattitudesonbothsidesoftheimmigrationbattle.Lookingbeyondtheculturewarlogicofrightorwrongmeansopeningupthemiddlegroundandunderstandingthatmanagingimmigrationtodayrequiresmultiplepathsandmultipleoutcomes.Includingsomethatarenoteasytoaccomplishlegallyintheexistingsystem.

26“Birdsofpassage”referstothosewho____

[A]immigrateacrosstheAtlantic.

[B]leavetheirhomecountriesforgood.

[C]stayinaforegintemporaily.

[D]findpermanentjobsoverseas.

27Itisimpliedinparagraph2thatthecurrentimmigrationstystemintheUS____

[A]needsnewimmigrantcategories.

[B]hasloosenedcontroloverimmigrants.

[C]shouldbeadoptedtomeetchallenges.

[D]hasbeenfixeedviapoliticalmeans.

28Accordingtotheauthor,today’sbirdsofpassagewant___

[A]fiancialincentives.

[B]aglobalrecognition.

[C]opportunitiestogetregularjobs.

[D]thefreedomtostayandleave.

29Theauthorsuggeststhatthebirdsofpassagetodayshouldbetreated__

[A]asfaithfulpartners.

[B]witheconomicfavors.

[C]withregaltolerance.

[D]asmightyrivals.

30选出最适合文章的标题

[A]comeandgo:bigmistake.

[B]livingandthriving:greatrisk.

[C]withorwithout:greatrisk.

[D]legalorillegal:bigmistake.

Text3

Scientistshavefoundthatalthoughwearepronetosnapoverreactions,ifwetakeamomentandthinkabouthowwearelikelytoreact,wecanreduceoreveneliminatethenegativeeffectsofourquick,hard-wiredresponses.

Snapdecisionscanbeimportantdefensemechanisms;ifwearejudgingwhethersomeoneisdangerous,ourbrainsandbodiesarehard-wiredtoreactveryquickly,withinmilliseconds.Butweneedmoretimetoassessotherfactors.Toaccuratelytellwhethersomeoneissociable,studiesshow,weneedatleastaminute,preferablyfive.Ittakesawhiletojudgecomplexaspectsofpersonality,likeneuroticismoropen-mindedness.

Butsnapdecisionsinreactiontorapidstimuliaren’texclusivetotheinterpersonalrealm.PsychologistsattheUniversityofTorontofoundthatviewingafast-foodlogoforjustafewmillisecondsprimesustoread20percentfaster,eventhoughreadinghaslittletodowitheating.Weunconsciouslyassociatefastfoodwithspeedandimpatienceandcarrythoseimpulsesintowhateverelsewe’redoing,Subjectsexposedtofast-foodflashesalsotendtothinkamusicalpiecelaststoolong.

Yetwecanreversesuchinfluences.Ifweknowwewilloverreacttoconsumerproductsorhousingoptionswhenweseeahappyface(onereasongoodsalesrepresentativesandrealestateagentsarealwayssmiling),wecantakeamomentbeforebuying.Ifweknowfemalejobscreenersaremorelikelytorejectattractivefemaleapplicants,wecanhelpscreenersunderstandtheirbiases-orhireoutsidescreeners.

JohnGottman,themarriageexpert,explainsthatwequickly“thinslice”informationreliablyonlyafterwegroundsuchsnapreactionsin“thicksliced”long-termstudy.WhenDr.Gottmanreallywantstoassesswhetheracouplewillstaytogether,heinvitesthemtohisislandretreatforamucklongerevaluation;twodays,nottwoseconds.

Ourabilitytomuteourhard-wiredreactionsbypausingiswhatdifferentiatesusfromanimals:dogecanthinkaboutthefutureonlyintermittentlyorforafewminutes.Buthistoricallywehavespentabout12percentofourdayscontemplatingthelongerterm.Althoughtechnologymightchangethewaywereact,ithasn’tchangedournature.Westillhavetheimaginativecapacitytoriseabovetemptationandreversethehigh-speedtrend.

31.Thetimeneededinmakingdecisionsmay____.

[A]varyaccordingtotheurgencyofthesituation

[B]provethecomplexityofourbrainreaction

[C]dependontheimportanceoftheassessment

[D]predeterminetheaccuracyofourjudgment

32.Ourreactiontoafast-foodlogoshowsthatsnaodecisions____.

[A]canbeassociative

[B]arenotunconscious

[C]canbedangerous

[D]arenotimpulsive

33.Toreversethenegativeinfluencesofsnapdecisions,weshould____.

[A]trustourfirstimpression

[B]doaspeopleusuallydo

[C]thinkbeforeweact

[D]askforexpertadvice

34.JohnGottmansaysthatreliablesnapreactionarebasedon____.

[A]criticalassessment

[B]‘‘thinsliced’’study

[C]sensibleexplanation

[D]adequateinformation

35.Theauthor’sattitudetowardreversingthehigh-speedtrendis____.

[A]tolerant

[B]uncertain

[C]optimistic

[D]doubtful

Text4

Europeisnotagender-equalityheaven.Inparticular,thecorporateworkplacewillneverbecompletelyfamily—friendlyuntilwomenarepartofseniormanagementdecisions,andEurope,stopcorporate-governancepositionsremainoverwhelminglymale.indeed,womenholdonly14percentofpositionsonEuropecorporateboards.

TheEuropeUnionisnowconsideringlegislationtocompelcorporateboardstomaintainacertainproportionofwomen-upto60percent.Thisproposedmandatewasbornoffrustration.Lastyear,EuropeCommissionVicePresidentVivianeRedingissuedacalltovoluntaryaction.Redinginvitedcorporationstosignupforgenderbalancegoalof40percentfemaleboardmembership.Butherappealwasconsideredafailure:only24companiestookitup.

DoweneedquotastoensurethatwomencancontinuetoclimbthecorporateLadderfairyastheybalanceworkandfamily?

“Personally,Idon’tlikequotas,”Redingsaidrecently.“Butilikewhatthequotasdo.”Quotasgetaction:they“openthewaytoequalityandtheybreakthroughtheglassceiling,”accordingtoReding,aresultseeninFranceandothercountrieswithlegallybindingprovisionsonplacingwomenintopbusinesspositions.

IunderstandReding’sreluctance-andherfrustration.Idon’tlikequotaseither;theyruncountertomybeliefinmeritocracy,governmentbythecapable.Bur,whenoneconsiderstheobstaclestoachievingthemeritocraticideal,itdoeslookasifafairerworldmustbetemporarilyordered.

Afterall,fourdecadesofevidencehasnowshownthatcorporationsinEuropeastheUSareevadingthemeritocratichiringandpromotionofwomentotopposition—nomatterhowmuch“softpressure”isputuponthem.Whenwomendobreakthroughtothesummitofcorporatepower--as,forexample,SherylSandbergrecentlydidatFacebook—theyattractmassiveattentionpreciselybecausetheyremaintheexceptiontotherule.

Ifappropriatepubicpolicieswereinplacetohelpallwomen---whetherCEOsortheirchildren’scaregivers--andallfamilies,Sandbergwouldbenomorenewsworthythananyotherhighlycapablepersonlivinginamorejustsociety.

36.IntheEuropeancorporateworkplace,generally_____.

[A]womentakethelead

[B]menhavethefinalsay

[C]corporategovernanceisoverwhelmed

[D]seniormanagementisfamily-friendly

37.TheEuropeanUnion’sintendedlegislationis________.

[A]areflectionofgenderbalance

[B]areluctantchoice

[C]aresponsetoReding’scall

[D]avoluntaryaction

38.AccordingtiReding,quotasmayhelpwomen______.

[A]gettopbusinesspositions

[B]seethroughtheglassceiling

[C]balanceworkandfamily

[D]anticipatelegalresults

39.Theauthor’sattitudetowardReding’sappealisoneof_________.

[A]skepticism

[B]objectiveness

[C]indifference

[D]approval

40.Womenenteringtopmanagementbecomeheadlinesduetothelackof______.

[A]moresocialjustice

[B]massivemediaattention

[C]suitablepublicpolicies

[D]greater“softpressure”

PartB

Directions:

Youaregoingtoreadalistofheadingsandatext.ChoosethemostsuitableheadingfromthelistA-Fforeachnumberedparagraph(41-45).MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)

[A]Livelikeapeasant

[B]Balanceyourdiet

[C]Shopkeepersareyourfriends

[D]Remembertotreatyourself

[E]Sticktowhatyouneed

[F]Planningisevervthing

[G]Wastenot,wantnot

ThehugelypopularblogtheSkintFoodiechronicleshowTonybalanceshisloveofgoodfoodwithlivingonbenefits.Afterbills,Tonyhas?60aweektospend,?40ofwhichgoesonfood,but10yearsagohewasearning?130,000aIyearworkingincorporatecommunicationsandeatingatLondon'sbetftrestaurants'"atleasttwiceaweek.Thenhismarriagefailed,hiscareerburnedoutandhisdrinkingbecameserious."Thecommunitymentalhealthteamsavedmylife.AndIfeltlikethatagain,toacertaindegree,whenpeoplerespondedtotheblogsowell.ItgavemethevalidationandconfidencethatI'dlost.Butit'sstilladay-by-daything."Nowhe'slivinginacouncilflatandfieldingoffersfromliteraryagents.He'sfeelingpositive,buthe'llcarryonblogging-notabouteatingascheaplyasyoucan-"therearesomanypeopleinamuchworsestate,withbarelyanymoneytospendonfood"-buteatingwellonabudget.Here'shisadviceforeconomicalfoodies.

41._____________________

Impulsivespendingisn'tanoption,soplanyourweek'smenuinadvance,makingshoppinglistsforyouringredientsintheirexactquantities.IhaveanExceltemplateforaweekofbreakfast,lunchanddinner.Stoplaughing:it'snotjustcosteffectivebuthelpsyoubalanceyourdiet.It'salsoagoodideatoshopdailyinsteadofweekly,because,being-human,you'llsometimeschangeyourmindaboutwhatyoufancy.

42____________________________________________________________

Thisiswheresupermarketsandthci;anonymitycomeinhandy.Withthem,

there'snotthesameembarrassmentaswhenbuyingonecarrotinalittle

greengrocer.Andifyouplanproperly,you'llknowthatyouonlyneed,say,350g

ofshinofbeefandsixrashersofbacon,notwhateverweightispre-packedinthe

supermarketchiller.

43_________

Youmayproudlyclaimtoonlyhavefrozenpeasinthefreezer-that'snot

goodenough.Mineisfilledwithleftovers,bread,stock,meatandfish.Planning

aheadshouldeliminatewastage,butifyouhavesurplusvegetablesyou'lldoa

vegetablesoup,andallfruitsthreateningto"gooff'willbecookedorjuiced.

44___________________________________

Everyonesaysthis,butitreallyisatoptipforfrugaleaters.Shopatbutchers,

delisandfish-sellersregularly,evenforsmallthings,andbesuperfriendly.Soon

you'llfeelcomfortableaskingifthey'veanyknucklesofhamforsoupsandstews,

orbeefbones,chickencarcassesandfishheadsforstockwhich,moreoftenthan

not,Theyilletyouhaveforfree.

45__________________

Youwon'tbeeatingoutalot,butsaveyourpenniesandonceeveryfew

monthstreatyourselftoasetlunchatagoodrestaurant-?1.75aweekforthree

monthsgivesyou?21-morethan"enoughforathree-courselunchat

Michelin-starredArbutus.It's?16.95there-or?12.99foralargepizzafrom

Domino's:IknowwhichI'drathereat.

SectionIIITranslation

Directions:

TranslatethefollowingtextfromEnglishintoChinese.WriteyourtranslationonANSWERSHEET2.(15points)

Icanpickadatefromthepast53yearsandknowinstantlywhereIwas,whathappenedinthenewsandeventhedayoftheweek.I’vebeenabletodothissinceIwasfour.

Ineverfeeloverwhelmedwiththeamountofinformationmybrainabsorbsmymindseemstobeabletocopeandtheinformationisstoredawayreatly.WhenIthinkofasadmemory,Idowhateveryonedoes-trytoputittooneside.Idon’tthinkit’sharderformejustbecausemymemoryisclearer.Powerfulmemorydoesn’tmakemyemotionsanymoreactureorvivid.IcanrecallthedaymygrandfatherdiedandthesadnessIfeltwhenwewenttothehosptibalthedaybefore.IalsorememberthatthemusicalpalyHamopenedontheBroadwayonthesameday-theybothjustpopintomymindinthesameway.

SectionIVWriting

47.Supposeyourclassistoholdacharitysalefoekidsinneedofhelp.Writeyourclassmatesanemailto

1)informthemaboutthedetailsandencouragethemtoparticipate.

2)Don’tuseyourownname,use“LiMing”instead.Don’twriteyouraddress.(10points)

48writeanessaybasedonthefollowingchart.Inyourwriting,youshould

1)interpretthechartand

2)giveyourcomments

Youshouldwriteabout150wordsontheANSWERSHEET.


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