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2013考研英语(一)试题及答案解析

时间:2020-07-16来源:swan 作者:考研试题 点击:

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每年的全国研究生统一招生初试考试试题(简称:考研试题)在大家考研过程中的重要程度不言而喻,即使在考研备基础备考阶段也要以历年考研试题为根本,下面是中公考研小编整理发布历年考研英语试题及答案解析汇总供考生参考,预祝大家考个好成绩!

SectionIUseofEnglish

Directions:Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)

Peopleare,onthewhole,pooratconsideringbackgroundinformationwhenmakingindividualdecisions.Atfirstglancethismightseemlikeastrengththat__1_theabilitytomakejudgmentswhichareunbiasedby_2_factors.ButDrSimontonspeculatedthataninabilitytoconsiderthebig_3_wasleadingdecision-makerstobebiasedbythedailysamplesofinformationtheywereworkingwith._4_,hetheorizedthatajudge_5_ofappearingtoosoft_6_crimemightbemorelikelytosendsomeonetoprison__7_hehadalreadysentencedfiveorsixotherdefendantsonlytoforcedcommunityserviceonthatday.

To__8__thisidea,theyturnedtheirattentiontotheuniversity-admissionsprocess.Intheory,the____9___ofanapplicantshouldnotdependonthefewothers___10____randomlyforinterviewduringthesameday,butDrSimontonsuspectedthetruthwas____11____.

Hestudiedtheresultsof9,323MBAinterviews_12_by31admissionsofficers.Theinterviewershad_13_applicantsonascaleofonetofive.Thisscale_14_numerousfactorsintoconsideration.Thescoreswere_15_usedinconjunctionwithanapplicant’sscoreontheGMAT,astandardizedexamwhichis_16_outof800points,tomakeadecisiononwhethertoaccepthimorher.

DrSimontonfoundifthescoreofthepreviouscandidateinadailyseriesofintervieweeswas0.75pointsormorehigherthanthatoftheone_17__that,thenthescoreforthenextapplicantwould_18_byanaverageof0.075points.Thismightsoundsmall,butto_19_theeffectsofsuchadecreaseacandidatewouldneed30moreGMATpointsthanwouldotherwisehavebeen_20__.

1.AgrantsBsubmitsCtransmitsDdelivers

2.AminorBexternalCcrucialDobjective

3.AissueBvisionCpictureDmoment

4.AAboveallBOnaverageCInprincipleDForexample

5.AfondBfearfulCcapableDthoughtless

6.AinBforCtoDon

7.AifBuntilCthoughDunless

8.A.testB.emphasizeC.shareD.promote

9.A.decisionB.qualityC.statusD.success

10.A.foundB.studiedC.chosenD.identified

11.A.otherwiseB.defensibleC.replaceableD.exceptional

12.A.inspiredB.expressedC.conductedD.secured

13.A.assignedB.ratedC.matchedD.arranged

14.A.putB.gotC.tookD.gave

15.A.insteadB.thenC.everD.rather

16.A.selectedB.passedC.markedD.introduced

17.AbelowBafterCaboveDbefore

18.AjumpBfloatCfluctuateDdrop

19.AachieveBundoCmaintainDdisregard

20.AnecessaryBpossibleCpromisingDhelpful

SectionIIReadingComprehension

PartA

Directions:Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(40points)

Text1

Inthe2006filmversionofTheDevilWearsPrada,MirandaPriestly,playedbyMerylStreep,scoldsherunattractiveassistantforimaginingthathighfashiondoesn’taffecther,Priestlyexplainshowthedeepbluecoloroftheassistant’ssweaterdescendedovertheyearsfromfashionshowstodepartmentsstoresandtothebargainbininwhichthepoorgirldoubtlessfoundhergarment.

Thistop-downconceptionofthefashionbusinesscouldn’tbemoreoutofdateoratoddswiththefeverishwoulddescribedinOverdressed,ElizabethCline’sthree-yearindictmentof“fastfashion”.Inthelastdecadeorso,advancesintechnologyhaveallowedmass-marketlabelssuchasZara,H&M,andUniqlotoreacttotrendsmorequicklyandanticipatedemandmoreprecisely.Quickerturnaroundsmeanlesswastedinventory,morefrequentrelease,andmoreprofit.Theselabelsencouragestyle-consciousconsumerstoseeclothesasdisposable-meanttolastonlyawashortwo,althoughtheydon’tadvertisethat–andtorenewtheirwardrobeeveryfewweeks.Byofferingon-trenditemsatdirt-cheapprices,Clineargues,thesebrandshavehijackedfashioncycles,shakinganindustrylongaccustomedtoaseasonalpace.

Thevictimsofthisrevolution,ofcourse,arenotlimitedtodesigners.ForH&Mtooffera$5.95knitminiskirtinallits2,300-piusstoresaroundtheworld,itmustrelyonlow-wageoverseaslabor,orderinvolumesthatstrainnaturalresources,andusemassiveamountsofharmfulchemicals.

Overdressedisthefashionworld’sanswertoconsumer-activistbestsellerslikeMichaelPollan’sTheOmnivore’sDilemma.“Mass-producedclothing,likefastfood,fillsahungerandneed,yetisnon-durableandwasteful,”Clineargues.Americans,shefinds,buyroughly20billiongarmentsayear–about64itemsperperson–andnomatterhowmuchtheygiveaway,thisexcessleadstowaste.

TowardstheendofOverdressed,Clineintroducedherideal,aBrooklynwomannamedSarahKateBeaumont,whosince2008hasmadeallofherownclothes–andbeautifully.ButasClineisthefirsttonote,ittookBeaumontdecadestoperfecthercraft;herexamplecan’tbeknockedoff.

Thoughseveralfast-fashioncompanieshavemadeeffortstocurbtheirimpactonlaborandtheenvironment–includingH&M,withitsgreenConsciousCollectionline–Clinebelieveslastingchangecanonlybeeffectedbythecustomer.Sheexhibitstheidealismcommontomanyadvocatesofsustainability,beitinfoodorinenergy.Vanityisaconstant;peoplewillonlystartshoppingmoresustainablywhentheycan’taffordnotto.

21.Priestlycriticizesherassistantforher

[A]poorbargainingskill.

[B]insensitivitytofashion.

[C]obsessionwithhighfashion.

[D]lackofimagination.

22.AccordingtoCline,mass-marketlabelsurgeconsumersto

[A]combatunnecessarywaste.

[B]shutoutthefeverishfashionworld.

[C]resisttheinfluenceofadvertisements.

[D]shopfortheirgarmentsmorefrequently.

23.Theword“indictment”(Line3,Para.2)isclosestinmeaningto

[A]accusation.

[B]enthusiasm.

[C]indifference.

[D]tolerance.

24.Whichofthefollowingcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraph?

[A]Vanityhasmoreoftenbeenfoundinidealists.

[B]Thefast-fashionindustryignoressustainability.

[C]Peoplearemoreinterestedinunaffordablegarments.

[D]Pricingisvitaltoenvironment-friendlypurchasing.

25.Whatisthesubjectofthetext?

[A]Satireonanextravagantlifestyle.

[B]Challengetoahigh-fashionmyth.

[C]Criticismofthefast-fashionindustry.

[D]Exposureofamass-marketsecret.

Text2

Anoldsayinghasitthathalfofalladvertisingbudgetsarewasted-thetroubleis,nooneknowswhichhalf.Intheinternetage,atleastintheory,thisfractioncanbemuchreduced.Bywatchingwhatpeoplesearchfor,clickonandsayonline,companiescanaim“behavioral”adsatthosemostlikelytobuy.

Inthepastcoupleofweeksaquarrelhasillustratedthevaluetoadvertisersofsuchfine-grainedinformation:Shouldadvertisersassumethatpeoplearehappytobetrackedandsentbehavioralads?Orshouldtheyhaveexplicitpermission?

InDecember2010America'sFederalTradeCommission(FTC)proposedaddinga"donottrack"(DNT)optiontointernetbrowsers,sothatuserscouldtelladvertisersthattheydidnotwanttobefollowed.Microsoft'sInternetExplorerandApple'sSafaribothofferDNT;Google'sChromeisduetodosothisyear.InFebruarytheFTCandDigitalAdvertisingAlliance(DAA)agreedthattheindustrywouldgetcrackingonrespondingtoDNTrequests.

OnMay31stMicrosoftSetofftherow:ItsaidthatInternetExplorer10,theversionduetoappearwindows8,wouldhaveDNTasadefault.

Itisnotyetclearhowadvertiserswillrespond.GettingaDNTsignaldoesnotobligeanyonetostoptracking,althoughsomecompanieshavepromisedtodoso.UnabletotellwhethersomeonereallyobjectstobehavioraladsorwhethertheyarestickingwithMicrosoft’sdefault,somemayignoreaDNTsignalandpressonanyway.

AlsouncleariswhyMicrosofthasgoneitalone.Afterall,ithasanadbusinesstoo,whichitsayswillcomplywithDNTrequests,thoughitisstillworkingouthow.IfitistryingtoupsetGoogle,whichreliesalmostwhollyondefaultwillbecomethenorm.DNTdoesnotseemanobviouslyhugesellingpointforwindows8-thoughthefirmhascomparedsomeofitsotherproductsfavorablywithGoogle'sonthatcountbefore.BrendonLynch,M

Microsoft'schiefprivacyofficer,blogged:"webelieveconsumersshouldhavemorecontrol."Coulditreallybethatsimple?


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