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2020新疆考研英语:阅读冲刺模拟及答案(三)

时间:2020-07-20来源:swan 作者:中公考研 点击:

临近考试很多同学都开始了紧张有序的考研试题刷题和学习任务,如何能够更好地做好英语阅读呢?今天中公考研小编分享“2020考研英语阅读冲刺模拟及答案(三)”,希望能给备战2020考研考生提供帮助。

Manyobjectsindailyusehaveclearlybeeninfluencedbyscience,buttheirformandfunction,theirdimensionsandappearance,weredeterminedbytechnologists,artisans,designers,inventors,andengineers&mdashusingnonscientificmodesofthought.Manyfeaturesandqualitiesoftheobjectsthatatechnologistthinksaboutcannotbereducedtounambiguousverbaldescriptionstheyaredealtwithinthemindbyavisual,nonverbalprocess.InthedevelopmentofWesterntechnology,ithasbeennonverbalthinking,byandlarge,thathasfixedtheoutlinesandfilledinthedetailsofourmaterialsurroundings.Pyramids,cathedrals,androcketsexistnotbecauseofgeometryorthermodynamics,butbecausetheywerefirstapictureinthemindsofthosewhobuiltthem.

Thecreativeshapingprocessofatechnologist''smindcanbeseeninnearlyeveryartifactthatexists.Forexample,indesigningadieselengine,atechnologistmightimpressindividualwaysofnonverbalthinkingonthemachinebycontinuallyusinganintuitivesenseofrightnessandfitness.Whatwouldbetheshapeofthecombustionchamber?Whereshouldbevalvesbeplaced?Shouldithavealongorshortpiston?Suchquestionshavearangeofanswersthataresuppliedbyexperience,byphysicalrequirements,bylimitationsofavailablespace,andnotleastbyasenseofform.Somedecisionssuchaswallthicknessandpindiameter,maydependonscientificcalculations,butthenonscientificcomponentofdesignremainsprimary.

Designcourses,then,shouldbeanessentialelementinengineeringcurricula.Nonverbalthinking,acentralmechanisminengineeringdesign,involvesperceptions,thestock-in-tradeoftheartist,notthescientist.Becauseperceptiveprocessesarenotassumedtoentailhardthinking,nonverbalthoughtissometimesseenasaprimitivestageinthedevelopmentofcognitiveprocessesandinferiortoverbalormathematicalthought.ButitisparadoxicalthatwhenthestaffoftheHistoricAmericanEngineeringRecordwishedtohavedrawingsmadeofmachinesandisometricviewsofindustrialprocessesforitshistoricalrecordofAmericanengineering,theonlycollegestudentswiththerequisiteabilitieswerenotengineeringstudents,butratherstudentsattendingarchitecturalschools.

Ifcoursesindesign,whichinastronglyanalyticalengineeringcurriculumprovidethebackgroundrequiredforpracticalproblem-solving,arenotprovided,wecanexpecttoencountersillybutcostlyerrorsoccurringinadvancedengineeringsystems.Forexample,earlymodelsofhigh-speedrailroadcarsloadedwithsophisticatedcontrolswereunabletooperateinasnowstormbecauseafansuckedsnowintotheelectricalsystem.Absurdrandomfailuresthatplagueautomaticcontrolsystemsarenotmerelytrivialaberrationstheyareareflectionofthechaosthatresultswhendesignisassumedtobeprimarilyaprobleminmathematics.

1.Inthetext,theauthorisprimarilyconcernedwith

[A]identifyingthekindsofthinkingthatareusedbytechnologists.

[B]stressingtheimportanceofnonverbalthinkinginengineeringdesign.

[C]proposinganewrolefornonscientificthinkinginthedevelopmentoftechnology.

[D]contrastingthegoalsofengineerswiththoseoftechnologists.

2.Itcanbeinferredthattheauthorthinksengineeringcurriculaare

[A]strengthenedwhentheyincludecoursesindesign.

[B]weakenedbythesubstitutionofphysicalsciencecoursesforcoursesdesignedtodevelopmathematicalskills.

[C]strongbecausenonverbalthinkingisstillemphasizedbymostofthecourses.

[D]strongdespitetheerrorsthatgraduatesofsuchcurriculahavemadeinthedevelopmentofautomaticcontrolsystems.

3.Whichofthefollowingstatementsbestillustratesthemainpointofthefirsttwoparagraphsofthetext?

[A]Whenamachinelikearotaryenginemalfunctions,itisthetechnologistwhoisbestequippedtorepairit.

[B]Eachcomponentofanautomobile&mdashforexample,theengineorthefueltank&mdashhasashapethathasbeenscientificallydeterminedtobebestsuitedtothatcomponent''sfunction.

[C]Atelephoneisacomplexinstrumentdesignedbytechnologistsusingonlynonverbalthought.

[D]Thedistinctivefeaturesofasuspensionbridgereflectitsdesigner''sconceptualizationaswellasthephysicalrequirementsofitssite.

4.Whichofthefollowingstatementswouldbestserveasanintroductiontothetext?

[A]Theassumptionthattheknowledgeincorporatedintechnologicaldevelopmentsmustbederivedfromscienceignoresthemanynonscientificdecisionsmadebytechnologists.

[B]Analyticalthoughtisnolongeravitalcomponentinthesuccessoftechnologicaldevelopment.

[C]Asknowledgeoftechnologyhasincreased,thetendencyhasbeentolosesightoftheimportantroleplayedbyscientificthoughtinmakingdecisionsaboutform,arrangement,andtexture.

[D]Amovementinengineeringcollegestowardatechnician''sdegreereflectsademandforgraduateswhohavethenonverbalreasoningabilitythatwasoncecommonamongengineers.

5.TheauthorcallsthepredicamentfacedbytheHistoricAmericanEngineeringRecordparadoxical(line6,paragraph3)mostprobablybecause

[A]thepublicationneededdrawingsthatitsownstaffcouldnotmake.

[B]architecturalschoolsofferedbutdidnotrequireengineeringdesigncoursesfortheirstudents.

[C]collegestudentswerequalifiedtomakethedrawingswhilepracticingengineerswerenot.

[D]engineeringstudentswerenottrainedtomakethetypeofdrawingsneededtorecordthedevelopmentoftheirowndiscipline.


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