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2020新疆考研英语:阅读冲刺模拟及答案(六)

时间:2020-07-20来源:swan 作者:中公考研 点击:

临近考试很多同学都开始了紧张有序的考研试题刷题和学习任务,如何能够更好地做好英语阅读呢?今天中公考研小编分享“2020考研英语阅读冲刺模拟及答案(六)”,希望能给备战2020考研考生提供帮助。

Themajorityofsuccessfulseniormanagersdonotcloselyfollowtheclassicalrationalmodeloffirstclarifyinggoals,assessingtheproblem,formulatingoptions,estimatinglikelihoodsofsuccess,makingadecision,andonlythentakingactiontoimplementthedecision.Rather,intheirday-by-daytacticalmaneuvers,theseseniorexecutivesrelyonwhatisvaguelytermedintuitiontomanageanetworkofinterrelatedproblemsthatrequirethemtodealwithambiguity,inconsistency,novelty,andsurpriseandtointegrateactionintotheprocessofthinking.

Generationsofwritersonmanagementhaverecognizedthatsomepracticingmanagersrelyheavilyonintuition.Ingeneral,however,suchwritersdisplayapoorgraspofwhatintuitionis.Someseeitastheoppositeofrationalityothersviewitasanexcuseforcapriciousness.

Isenberg'srecentresearchonthecognitiveprocessesofseniormanagersrevealsthatmanagers'intuitionisneitherofthese.Rather,seniormanagersuseintuitioninatleastfivedistinctways.First,theyintuitivelysensewhenaproblemexists.Second,managersrelyonintuitiontoperformwell-learnedbehaviorpatternsrapidly.Thisintuitionisnotarbitraryorirrational,butisbasedonyearsofpainstakingpracticeandhands-onexperiencethatbuildskills.Athirdfunctionofintuitionistosynthesizeisolatedbitsofdataandpracticeintoanintegratedpicture,ofteninanAha!experience.Fourth,somemanagersuseintuitionasacheckontheresultsofmorerationalanalysis.Mostseniorexecutivesarefamiliarwiththeformaldecisionanalysismodelsandtools,andthosewhousesuchsystematicmethodsforreachingdecisionsareoccasionallyleeryofsolutionssuggestedbythesemethodswhichruncountertotheirsenseofthecorrectcourseofaction.Finally,managerscanuseintuitiontobypassin-depthanalysisandmoverapidlytoengenderaplausiblesolution.Usedinthisway,intuitionisanalmostinstantaneouscognitiveprocessinwhichamanagerrecognizesfamiliarpatterns.

Oneoftheimplicationsoftheintuitivestyleofexecutivemanagementisthatthinkingisinseparablefromacting.Sincemanagersoftenknowwhatisrightbeforetheycananalyzeandexplainit,theyfrequentlyactfirstandexplainlater.Analysisisinextricablytiedtoactioninthinking/actingcycles,inwhichmanagersdevelopthoughtsabouttheircompaniesandorganizationsnotbyanalyzingaproblematicsituationandthenacting,butbyactingandanalyzingincloseconcert.

Giventhegreatuncertaintyofmanyofthemanagementissuesthattheyface,seniormanagersofteninstigateacourseofactionsimplytolearnmoreaboutanissue.Theythenusetheresultsoftheactiontodevelopamorecompleteunderstandingoftheissue.Oneimplicationofthinking/actingcyclesisthatactionisoftenpartofdefiningtheproblem,notjustofimplementingthesolution.

1.Accordingtothetext,seniormanagersuseintuitioninallofthefollowingwaysEXCEPTto

[A]speedupofthecreationofasolutiontoaproblem.

[B]identifyaproblem.

[C]bringtogetherdisparatefacts.

[D]stipulatecleargoals.

2.Thetextsuggestswhichofthefollowingaboutthewritersonmanagementmentionedinline1,paragraph2?

[A]Theyhavecriticizedmanagersfornotfollowingtheclassicalrationalmodelofdecisionanalysis.

[B]Theyhavenotbasedtheiranalysesonasufficientlylargesampleofactualmanagers.

[C]Theyhavereliedindrawingtheirconclusionsonwhatmanagerssayratherthanonwhatmanagersdo.

[D]Theyhavemisunderstoodhowmanagersuseintuitioninmakingbusinessdecisions.

3.ItcanbeinferredfromthetextthatwhichofthefollowingwouldmostprobablybeonemajordifferenceinbehaviorbetweenManagerX,whousesintuitiontoreachdecisions,andManagerY,whousesonlyformaldecisionanalysis?

[A]ManagerXanalyzesfirstandthenactsManagerYdoesnot.

[B]ManagerXcheckspossiblesolutionstoaproblembysystematicanalysisManagerYdoesnot.

[C]ManagerXtakesactioninordertoarriveatthesolutiontoaproblemManagerYdoesnot.

[D]ManagerYdrawsonyearsofhands-onexperienceincreatingasolutiontoaproblemManagerXdoesnot.

4.Thetextprovidessupportforwhichofthefollowingstatements?

[A]Managerswhorelyonintuitionaremoresuccessfulthanthosewhorelyonformaldecisionanalysis.

[B]Managerscannotjustifytheirintuitivedecisions.

[C]Managers''intuitionworkscontrarytotheirrationalandanalyticalskills.

[D]Intuitionenablesmanagerstoemploytheirpracticalexperiencemoreefficiently.

5.Whichofthefollowingbestdescribestheorganizationofthefirstparagraphofthetext?

[A]Anassertionismadeandaspecificsupportingexampleisgiven.

[B]Aconventionalmodelisdismissedandanalternativeintroduced.

[C]Theresultsofrecentresearchareintroducedandsummarized.

[D]Twoopposingpointsofviewarepresentedandevaluated.


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